谷歌定制芯片(TPU)加速机器学习算法

ASIC定制芯片,可以通过优化硬件执行逻辑,来提升芯片的单位瓦特计算效能。从而更少的硬件和能耗,完成更复杂的算法,从而提升整体产品线的竞争力。 谷歌在这个领域并不是先例,微软通过FPGA加速索引和搜索过程。 OSRF(开放机器人联盟)通过FPGA实现对机器手的高速精密控制。 简单讲,专用芯片实现优势是复杂的算法,更低的能耗和更好的执行效率。

谷歌的专有芯片,是完全为TensorFlow机器学习框架定制的。目前服务100多个产品,包括Gmail, 街景,语音搜索,搜索页面质量评价等。 前些时间热门的AlphaGo,也是通过TPU来支持。 不多说了,请看原文。

Machine learning provides the underlying oomph to many of Google’s most-loved applications. In fact, more than 100 teams are currently using machine learning at Google today, from Street View, to Inbox Smart Reply, to voice search. But one thing we know to be true at Google: great software shines brightest with great hardware underneath. That’s why we started a stealthy project at Google several years ago to see what we could accomplish with our own custom accelerators for machine learning applications. The result is called a Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), a custom ASIC we built specifically for machine learning — and tailored for TensorFlow. We’ve been running TPUs inside our data centers for more than a year, and have found them to deliver an order of magnitude better-optimized performance per watt for machine learning. This is roughly equivalent to fast-forwarding technology about seven years into the future (three generations of Moore’s Law). TPU is tailored to machine learning applications, allowing the chip to be more tolerant of reduced computational precision, which means it requires fewer transistors per operation. Because of this, we can squeeze more operations per second into the silicon, use more sophisticated and powerful machine learning models and apply these models more quickly, so users get more intelligent results more rapidly. A board with a TPU fits into a hard disk drive slot in our data center racks.

Tensor Processing Unit board

Tensor Processing Unit board

TPU is an example of how fast we turn research into practice — from first tested silicon, the team had them up and running applications at speed in our data centers within 22 days. TPUs already power many applications at Google, including RankBrain, used to improve the relevancy of search results and Street View, to improve the accuracy and quality of our maps and navigation. AlphaGo was powered by TPUs in the matches against Go world champion, Lee Sedol, enabling it to “think” much faster and look farther ahead between moves.

Server racks with TPUs used in the AlphaGo matches with Lee Sedol

Server racks with TPUs used in the AlphaGo matches with Lee Sedol


Our goal is to lead the industry on machine learning and make that innovation available to our customers. Building TPUs into our infrastructure stack will allow us to bring the power of Google to developers across software like TensorFlow and Cloud Machine Learning with advanced acceleration capabilities. Machine Learning is transforming how developers build intelligent applications that benefit customers and consumers, and we’re excited to see the possibilities come to life.

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